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Add to Basket. Condition: Very Good. Great condition for a used book! Minimal wear. Book Description New Harbinger Publications. A copy that has been read, but remains in excellent condition.
Pages are intact and are not marred by notes or highlighting, but may contain a neat previous owner name. The spine remains undamaged. Seller Inventory GI4N A copy that has been read, but remains in clean condition.
All pages are intact, and the cover is intact. The spine may show signs of wear.
Pages can include limited notes and highlighting, and the copy can include previous owner inscriptions. Seller Inventory GI3N Book Description Impact , Interior unmarked. Seller Inventory DB Seller Inventory DR Book Description Paperback. Fifth Edit.
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Seller Inventory S Satisfaction Guaranteed! Book is in Used-Good condition. Pages and cover are clean and intact. Used items may not include supplementary materials such as CDs or access codes. May show signs of minor shelf wear and contain limited notes and highlighting. Seller Inventory Home Judge James W. Stewart Published by Impact, Seller Rating:. In some cases, a major objective was the restoring of social honor to the mother. Shotgun weddings have become less common as the stigma associated with out-of-wedlock births has gradually faded and the number of such births has increased; the increasing availability of birth control and abortion , as well as material support to unwed mothers, such as Elterngeld , child benefits , parental leave , and free kindergartens have reduced the perceived need for such measures.
Forced marriage is prevalent in Madagascar. Girls are married off by their families, and often led to believe that if they refuse the marriage they will be " cursed ". According to Human Rights Watch, Malawi has "widespread child and forced marriage" and half of the girls marry before Wife inheritance is also practiced in Malawi. After marriage, wives have very limited rights and freedoms; and general preparation of young girls for marriage consists in describing their role as that of being subordinated to the husband.
Forced marriage in Mauritania takes three principal forms: forced marriage to a cousin known as maslaha ; forced marriage to a rich man for the purpose of financial gain; and forced polygamous marriage to an influential man.
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In a law went into effect known as the Hakkaoui law because Bassima Hakkaoui drafted it; among other things it includes a ban on forced marriage. But it was criticized for requiring victims to file for criminal prosecution to get protection. Forced marriage is common in Niger. Niger has the highest prevalence of child marriage in the world;   and also the highest total fertility rate.
Chaibou was 12 when she was informed by her own mother that she was to be married to her cousin, and when she was 16, she took to the courts. With little success, Chaibou was forced to a women's shelter before she was finally able to go home where she learned of her parents changed views on forced marriage, that they were now against it. In South Africa, ukuthwala is the practice of abducting young girls and forcing them into marriage, often with the consent of their parents. In Tanzania, the practices of forced marriage and child marriage impacts the human rights and childhood of girls.
Oftentimes, girls are married off as soon as they hit puberty, which can be as young as seven years old. Child brides endure forced sex, causing health risks and growth impediments. Married and pregnant students are often discriminated against, and expelled and excluded from school.
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The issue of child marriage establishes a minimum age of 18 for the boys of Tanzania. A minimum age needs to be enforced for girls to stop these practices and provide them with equal rights and a less harmful life. In , during a feast ending the Muslim holy month of Ramadan , the Gambian President Yahya Jammeh announced that child and forced marriages were banned. Compensation marriage , known variously as vani , swara and sang chatti , is the traditional practice of forced marriage of women and young girls to resolve tribal feuds in parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The practice is illegal in Pakistan, though it continues to be widely practiced in Pakistan's Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. In Afghanistan , the practice is known as baad. Forced marriage is very common in Afghanistan, and sometimes women resort to suicide to escape these marriages. Obtaining a divorce without the consent of the husband is nearly impossible in Afghanistan, and women attempting a de facto separation risk being imprisoned for "running away".
While it is not socially acceptable for women and girls to leave home without permission, "running away" is not defined as a criminal offense in the Afghan Penal Code. However, in and , the Afghan Supreme Court issued instructions to courts to charge women with "running away" as a crime. This makes it nearly impossible for women to escape forced marriages.
The Human Rights Watch report stated that. According to the UN, as of , 70 to 80 percent of marriages in Afghanistan were forced, taking place without full and free consent or under duress. Another study found that 59 percent of women had experienced forced marriage. Forced marriage remains common for Kurdish girls in Iran and is also one of the major reasons for self-immolation in Iran. As in other parts of South Asia , girls in Nepal are often seen as an economic burden to the family, due to dowry. Parents often compel young girls to marry, because older and more educated men can demand a higher dowry.
Because widows often lose social status in Nepalese society, this policy was meant to 'solve' their problems. However, many widows and human rights groups protested these regulations, denouncing them as humiliating and as encouraging coerced marriages. During the Sri Lankan Civil War , a report in the journal Reproductive Health Matters found that forced marriage in Sri Lanka was taking place in the context of the armed conflict, where parents forced teenage girls into marriage in order to ensure that they do not lose their chastity considered an increased risk due to the conflict before marriage, which would compromise their chances of finding a husband.
In the family ministry of Germany found that people were in forced marriages, nearly all from migrant families and most Of those , were girls, were from Syria, were Afghans and were Iraqis.
Forced marriages can be made because of family pride, the wishes of the parents, or social obligation. For example, according to Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood , many forced marriages in Britain within the British Pakistani community are aimed at providing British citizenship to a member of the family currently in Pakistan to whom the instigator of the forced marriage feels a sense of duty. Similar legislation was passed in Scotland: the Forced Marriage etc. Protection and Jurisdiction Scotland Act  gives courts the power to issue protection orders.
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In , it was estimated that about forced marriages took place each year. Mr Justice Holman said that the girl, now 17, would have to initiate proceedings herself to have the marriage nullified. The Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act makes forcing someone to marry including abroad a criminal offence. In July , the United Kingdom hosted its first global Girl Summit; the goal of the Summit was to increase efforts to end child marriage , early, and forced marriage and female genital mutilation within a generation.
The first conviction for forced marriage in the United Kingdom occurred in June , with the convicted being a man from Cardiff , who was subsequently sentenced to 16 years in prison. The maximum sentence is 4 years. In July an Afghani man in Sweden was sentenced to 4 years in prison for forcing his daughter to marry someone in Afghanistan in the first Swedish conviction.
He was also convicted for sexually molesting her Swedish boyfriend, assault, threats, robbery, blackmailing and false imprisonment. In January convicted the maternal uncle and aunt of a year-old girl of an Iraqi family were sentenced to 21 months in jail and to pay euro in damages for forced marriage. In December her family discovered that the girl was dating a boy and the family decided to marry her off to a cousin without her knowledge.